What are Atom, Valence shell, Nucleus, Electron, Proton, and Neutron? Basic Electronics Part-3.

Subject: Atom, Valence shell, Nucleus, Electron, Proton, and Neutron.

What are Atom, Valence shell, Nucleus, Electron, Proton, and Neutron

Dear friends, those of you who have not studied science but do electronics work by learning practical work from an electronics technician, as a result of which you do not have basic knowledge of electronics,  this small effort of mine is for them so that they can acquire the basic understanding of


Electronics can do the work of electronics without anyone's help.

Moreover, the main components of any electronic device are diodes and transistors.ICs and silicon chips are assembled using diodes and transistors. So, to know how diodes and transistors work, it is essential to know about sub-atomic particles or Electrons, Protons, Neutrons, etc.

What are Atom, Electron, Proton, and Neutron?

We have learned about Molecules from the previous article. Let's know more about atom electrons, protons, and neutrons.

What is Atom?

When a molecule breaks down in any process, it breaks down into smaller particles. These tiny particles of matter are called atoms. In short, the smallest particle of a molecule is called an atom. All the substances around us are visible and can be touched, smelled, and tasted; all those substances consist of numerous atoms. In short, all elements of matter are atoms. The shape, color, taste, and smell of various substances depending on the arrangement of atoms of those substances.

Generally, atoms cannot exist independently, so when atoms become independent in a process, they become molecules of an elemental substance Because there is no characteristic difference between molecules and atoms of an Elemental substance.
Look carefully at the figure below; the whole picture is a picture of atoms, which is an atom of silicon. Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons neatly arrange the interior of this atom. An imaginary ring called the Nucleus contains protons and neutrons, So the Nucleus at the center of an atom consists of neutrons & protons.


Atom, Electron, Proton, Neutron,

ATOM,  ELECTRON,  PROTON,  NEUTRON,  NUCLEUS of SILICON

In the figure above, A is a voltage shell or orbit, B is an electron, C is the Nucleus, D is a proton, and E is a neutron.

We have clearly understood from the above paragraphs that atoms comprise Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons. Now, let's discuss the characteristics of ElectronsProtons, and Neutrons separately.

What is Electron?

The electron is the particle of the atom. The position of the electrons is outside the Nucleus. Electrons revolve around the Nucleus in the circular valence shellElectrons are subatomic particles of the fermions and leptons family. Electrons carry a negative charge.


Physicist Sir Joseph John Thomson discovered the electron in 1897; he proved that cathode rays are actually streams of negatively charged particles or electrons. Moreover, Sir George Johnstone Stoney named the electronSince our topic is electronics, we must remember that When electrons start to flow through a substance in any process, you must understand that electricity flows through that substance.

What is Nucleus?

The Nucleus is a mixture of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons located at the center of the atom.

What is Proton?

A positively charged, stable subatomic particle located in the Nucleus of an atom is called a proton.

What is Neutron? 

Neutrons are electrically neutral particles close to protons.


Electron, Proton, Neutron,

Structure of Atom & Symbols of Electron Proton and Neutron

To remember the characteristics of electrons, protons, and neutrons, note the symbols in the above diagram:
e minus stands for negatively charged electrons, p plus for positively charged protons, and n zero for electrically neutral neutrons.
Symbols of Electron Proton And Neutron.
Electron: e-,  Proton: p+,  and Neutron: n°‌
I hope you have understood what Atom, Electron, Proton, and Neutron are and their location. If you have trouble understanding, read again and try to understand by matching the picture.

#Atom #Valenceshell #Nucleus #Electron #Proton, #Neutron.


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